Opuntia Chromosomes and DNA


Opuntia DNA and Ploidy

An index to published chromosome information many cacti and prickly pears is at Index to Plant Chromosome Numbers (IPCN, Tropicos). Another index to many plants is at Chromosome Counts Database, Rice et al., 2016, Website. 

Ploidy information for many Opuntia species of the USA may also be found in “Pricklypears Commonly Found in the United States and Northern Mexico”, Green, C with Ferguson, D, 2012 (ISBN: 0615131212, 9780615131214). Another excellent source of ploidy information for cacti is “Cacti of the Trans-Pecos and Adjacent Areas”, Powell and Weedin, 2004 (ISBN: 0896725316, 978-0896725317). 

Prickly pear names change, and new science provides new evidence. Ploidy levels and taxonomy as presented here represent the best knowledge available at the time the various materials were published. Some species were undoubtedly misidentified. Names of opuntias have changed over time, thus it is important to interpret this information carefully. 


A Cytological and Morphometric Analysis of a Triploid Apomict, Opuntia ×kelvinensis, Baker and Pinkava, 1987

An Intron Loss in the Chloroplast Gene rpo C1 Supports a Monophyletic Origin for the Subfamily Cactoideae of the Cactaceae, Wallace and Costa, 1996

Opuntia of North America, An Overview, Rebman and Pinkava, 2001

Chromosome Counts of Miscellaneous Cacti, Ferguson, 1991 (unpublished)

Chromosome Counts of Opuntia (Cactaceae), Prickly Pear Cacti, in the Midwestern United States, Ribbens and Majure, 2012

Chromosome Counts, Cytology, and Reproduction in the Cactaceae, Ross, 1981

Plant Cell Nuclei
Plant Cell Nuclei

Chromosome Numbers for the Flora of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Pinkava et al., 1992

Chromosome Numbers, Nuclear DNA Content, and Polyploidy in Consolea, Negron-Ortiz, 2007

Chromosome Numbers in Chihuahuan Desert Cacti, Weedin and Powell, 1978

Chromosome Numbers in Chihuahuan Desert Cacti II, Weedin et al., 1989

Chromosome Numbers in Chihuahuan Desert Cacti III, Powell and Weedin, 2001

Chromosome Numbers in Cacti of Western North America I, Pinkava and McLeod, 1971

Chromosome Numbers in Cacti of Western North America II, Pinkava et al., 1973

Chromosome Numbers in Cacti of Western North America III, Pinkava et al., 1977

Chromosome Numbers in Cacti of Western North America IV, Pinkava and Parfitt, 1982

Chromosome Numbers in Cacti of Western North America V, Pinkava et al., 1985

Chromosome Numbers in Cacti of Western North America VI, with Nomenclatural Changes, Pinkava et al., 1992

Chromosome Numbers in Cacti of Western North America VII, Pinkava et al., 1998

Chromosome Numbers in Cacti of Western North America VIII, Baker et al., 2009

Chromosome Numbers in Miscellaneous North American Vascular Plants, Parfitt et al., 1990

Chromosome Numbers of Some of the Cactaceae, Stockwell, 1935

Club Chollas of the Big Bend, Fenstermacher, 2016

Cylindropuntia chuckwallensis, Baker and Cloud-Hughes, 2014

Cylindropuntia multigeniculata, Baker, 2005

Cytogeography of the Humifusa Clade of Opuntia, Majure et al., 2012

Documented Chromosome Numbers, 2005, trans-Pecos, Weedin and Powell, 2005

Fruit Characters Among Apomicts and Sexual Progeny of a Cross of the Texas Native Opuntia lindheimeri (1250) with a Commercial Fruit Type Opuntia ficus–indica (1281), Felker, et al., 2009

Genome Sizes and Ploidy in Mexican Species of Opuntia, Segura et al., 2007

Grusonia pulchella classification and its impacts on the genus Grusonia, Griffith, 2002

Isolation and Characterization of Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers in Galapagos Prickly Pear Cactus Species, Helsen et al., 2007

Low Levels of Genetic Differentiation between Opuntia echios, Helsen, et al., 2009

Karyotypes, Heterochromatin, and Physical Mapping of 18S-26S rDNA in Cactaceae, Penas, et al., 2009

Karyotpic Studies in (three species) of Opuntia, Palomino and Heras, 2001

Plant Chromosomes
Plant Chromosomes

Karyotypes to Determine Relationships between Species of Opuntia, 2000

Measuring Genome Size of Desert Plants Using Dry Seeds, Sliwinska et al., 2009

miRNA Expression During Prickly Pear Cactus Fruit development, Caballero et al., 2015

Miscellaneous Chromosome Numbers in Opuntieae, Majure et al., 2012

Molecular Based Assessment of Genetic Diversity of xoconostle Accessions, Valadez-Moctezuma et al., 2014

Molecular Based Assessment of Genetic Diversity Within Barbary fig, Zoghlami et al., 2007

Molecular Characteristics of Prickly-pear Cactus (Opuntia) Based on Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequences (ITS) of Queretaro State – Mexico, de Lyra et al., 2012

Molecular Phylogeny and Character Evolution in Terete-stemmed Andean Opuntias, Ritz et et al., 2012

Molecular Studies of Forage Prickly-pear Cactus from Brazil, Catanho Pereira de Lyra, 2015

Molecular Systematics of the Cactaceae, Barcenas, et al., 2011

Multivariate Analysis of Karyotpes in Opuntia, Bandyopadhyay and Sharma, 2000

Natural Pentaploids in the Opuntia lindheimeriphaeacantha Group in Texas, Grant and Grant, 1982

Nomenclatural Changes in Cylindropuntia and Opuntia, Pinkava, 2002

Nuclear DNA in Angiosperms, Bennet and Leitch, 2010

Números Cromosomáticos Para las Cactaceae del Paraguay, Author and date unknown

Opuntia delafuentiana a New Xoconostle from Central Mexico, Martinez-Gonzalez et al., 2015

Plant Cell Walls
Plant Cell Walls

Opuntia diploursina, Stock et al., 2014

Opuntia ficus-indica; Chromosome Races and Origins, Tephrocactus Study Group, Rowley

Origins of Opuntia curvospina, Parfitt, 1980

Phylogenetic Relationships in Opuntia (Cactaceae, Opuntioideae) from South America, Realini, 2014

Phylogeny of Opuntia ss–Clade delineation, geographic origins, and reticulate evolution, Majure et all, 2012

Taxonomy and  Distribution of Opuntia and Related Plants, Puente and Pinkava, date unknown

The Origins of an Important Cactus Crop, Opuntia ficus-indica, Griffith, 2004

Typifications and a Nomeclatural Change in Some Eastern North American Opuntia, Majure, 2014

Using Molecular Data to Elucidate Reticulate Evolution in Opuntia (Cactaceae), Griffith, 2003

What Did the First Cacti Look Like, Griffith, 2004

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