Opuntia Web

Opuntia engelmannii fruit
Opuntia engelmannii fruit


Updated September 2020

Opuntias are the prickly pear cacti. There are over 90 species of Opuntia in the United States. We describe them here.  

Opuntias are unique cacti with unusual shapes and beautiful flowers.  They are part of the opuntiad supergroup of cacti. 

The “big three” states for opuntias are Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. However, the East has a number of species too. Most states have at least one native prickly pear. The good news is that many western opuntias will grow in a variety of climates. So, you can grow them in your garden. 

Cholla Web is our sister website, and it describes other opuntiads of the USA (chollas and dog chollas).

The Details

Of the many prickly pear cacti in the United States, some have been forgotten by time, and many names have fallen by the wayside. Some species have multiple names. Some species look superficially alike, and only close inspection can tell them apart (e.g., O. humifusa and O. mesacantha).

Thus, casual observation might indicate one Opuntia type where there are actually four. 

What We Do

Opuntia valida
Opuntia valida, Artesia, NM

We describe Opuntia species, and we provide multiple photographs so you can see details. We take photos in habitat so that you can see how the plants look and grow in different seasons. 

We use historical records and current findings along with our own field studies to identify prickly pears, their differences, and their similarities. 

Our goal is to describe a prickly pear cactus in easy-to-understand terms so that you can find all of them in habitat.

A group of editors verifies all the information on this Website, and we strive for accuracy. But we are always happy to learn new things. Just write to us or leave a comment. If you have an Opuntia, maybe we can help you identify it. 

We generally do not describe Opuntia hybrids though there are many beautiful plants in gardens. Though prickly pear hybrids occur in Nature, they are not the norm. We concentrate on species. 

The Garden

This Website is not about gardening, but we agree that many Opuntia species are excellent garden plants. Here are lists of the ones we like. 

What are 10 best small Opuntias for gardens? 

These prickly pear cacti are small, easy to grow, cold-hardy, and floriferous: excellent for any garden. They have the added benefit of growing in flower pots, and they are easily obtained too. 

What are 10 best large Opuntias for gardens? 

Large, majestic prickly pear cacti are popular in gardens too. Though they require more room, they are worth it because they are amazing statement plants in, or out, of flower. Large plants are found in many southwestern gardens, but you can grow some in the Midwest or the Southeast. They are all good bloomers and one produces sweet fruit. 

Through prickly pears are mostly desert plants, there are prickly pear species that will grow in the Southeast, the Northeast, and the upper Midwest

Many opuntias grow naturally in climates without strong freezes, but some come from northern areas or high altitudes that can fly through winters of exceptional cold. We like to grow opuntias, and writing about them helps us and others understand the various species and decide what to grow and photograph.


Opuntia alta
Opuntia alta, TX

Opuntia species are part of the supergroup: opuntiads. They are the plants with flat stems also known as paddle cacti.

Their names are confusing and many species are difficult to tell apart. Some species have been forgotten and we try to match up the species we see with the descriptions written 100 (or more) years ago. 

This Website has descriptions of over 90 prickly pear species and over 1500 photographs of them. 

Prickly pear cacti are unique and worth studying because: 

  • They are so numerous in the warmer parts of the county,
  • They are easy plants in gardens,
  • They provide fun detective stories about identification.
  • There are lost or forgotten species to pair with the original descriptions,
  • They are uniquely drought resistant and heat tolerant,
  • They have beautiful flowers and edible fruits, 
  • They are important plants for desert wildlife, 
  • There is much yet to be learned about their basic biology. 

18 thoughts on “Opuntia Web”

  1. Hi,

    There are a couple or three plants out there without spines and without glochids. The one I am most familiar with is O. cacanapa ‘Ellisiana’. It is also called O. Ellisiana. It forms a large plant 3-4 feet tall and across, but can be kept smaller by pruning. You can handle it with impunity, but I did find a glochid once.
    Read this page: https://www.opuntiads.com/opuntia-cacanapa-incl-o-ellisiana/ .


  2. Currently have two young opuntias growing alongside my golf course walkway. Will allow both the chance to grow to see what they might become. However, will deffinately transplant one, maybe both.

    Eager to obtain a clear ID, as soon as possible.

    Live in Arizona City, Arizona.

  3. What are the hardiest, tallest Opuntia varieties that I can introduce into my Hudson Valley, NY outside garden. I believe I’m in Zone 5, South of Poughkeepsie,Ny. Thanks

  4. Hi Stefan,

    I conferred with a colleague. Your plant is not a good fit for American species. However, we have some ideas/guesses. It seems like a largish woody plant.
    1. It is a garden hybrid.
    2. It may be related to O. engelmannii or O. arizonica and affected by culture conditions.
    3. There is a remote possibility is is an unusually woody form of O. tortispina.


  5. Hi,

    I don’t know of any large plants for your area. It is remotely possible that O. ‘Ellisiana’ could work out. Likely it would be OK down to 15F. Perhaps you could grow it in a large pot and then wheel it into the garage for winter.

    Good luck.

    Joe Shaw

  6. Jim,

    As per our discussion, it will be easier to ID your plant when it is more mature. Perhaps with flowers and/or fruits.

    Joe Shaw

  7. Can you help me identify ours, I can send a photo later let me know where I can send it to thanks I would like to harvest for family food or fruit to help with swelling from arthritis. Thanks Sam

  8. Casey Vogelhuber

    Very cool website, I’m glad I stumbled upon it in my search to learn more about the cactuses in our new home’s garden. The former residents took such good care of the plants. I’m new to gardening so it’s interesting to learn about the different kinds.

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