Multiple published, anecdotal, and Web sources were consulted. All information was confirmed by our editors. Additionally, we refer readers to the references used to support the Opuntia Web for more information about the North American Opuntiodeae. 

Sources Consulted

A Dictionary of Botany, Little, RJ and Jones, EU, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co, 1980

Biodiversity Heritage Library, Website

Botanicus, Website

Cacti & Other Succulents of Arizona (Field Guide to), Breslin, P et al, Tucson Cactus and Succulent Society,  2015

Cacti of Texas and Neighboring States, Weniger D, University of Texas Press, 2nd ed, 1988

Cylindropuntia fosbergii
Cylindropuntia fosbergii

Cacti of the Southwest, D. Weniger, University of Texas Press, 1978

Cacti of the Trans-Pecos and Adjacent Areas, Powell MA, Weedin JF, Texas Tech University Press, 2004 

Cacti, Agaves, and Yuccas of California and Nevada, Ingram, S, Cachuma Press, 2008

Cacti, Biology and Uses, Park S Nobel (ed), 2002, University of California Press

Cactiguide, Website

Cactus and Succulent Digital Library, Website

Chromosome Counts Database, Website

Cylindropuntia treatment in the Flora of North America, Website

Flora of North America online (at, V4, Cylindropuntia—from which many descriptions were augmented

Index to Plant Chromosome Numbers, Website

The Cactaceae: Descriptions and Illustrations of Plants of the Cactus Family, NL Britton and NJ Rose, Carnegie Institution of Washington, volume 1, 1919

The Cacti of the United States and Canada, Benson L, Stanford University Press, 1982

The Cactus Family, Anderson, E, Timber Press, 2001

The Plant List, Website

The Succulent Plant Page, Website

Trees, Shrubs & Cacti of South Texas, Everitt, JH and Drawe, DL, Texas Tech University Press, 1993

Tropicos, Website

…and many other sources

The Cactaceae: Descriptions and Illustrations of Plants of the Cactus Family was provided courtesy of the Cactus and Succulent Digital Library.

Also, see references used to support the Opuntia Web

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

%d bloggers like this: